Economics is defined as "the study of the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in human society" in the Economist's Dictionary of Economics. The objective is to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact. Simply put, economics is the study of how people choose to use resources including, but not limited to the time, the land, buildings, equipment and the knowledge. It has unique methods for analyzing and predicting individual behavior, along with the effects of institutions such as firms and governments, or clubs and religions.
Economics is divided into two main branches; microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics looks into the behavior of basic elements in the economy, including individual markets and agents (such as consumers and firms, buyers and sellers). For instance, how the change of the price of a good would influence a family's purchasing decisions would be of interest to microeconomics. Macroeconomics, on the other hand, examines the sum total of the decisions made by individuals in a society. Hence it looks into issues affecting an entire economy such as unemployment, inflation, economic growth, and monetary and fiscal policy. As such, how a change in interest rates would influence national savings would be an issue of interest for macroeconomics.
Objectives:To gain insight in the process of decision-making on medicines by different stakeholders and the application of quantitative benefit/risk assessment methods.
Objectives: To learn about available methodologies for quantitative benefit/risk assessment, to gain insight in the strengths and weaknesses of these methodologies, and to apply these methodologies in practice. Decision making on medicines informed by quantitative benefit-risk assessment may differ depending on the perspective of the decision maker and the phase of drug development.
This module will address in more depth the challenges (rationale , emotional and logistical) of Risk communication that have been raised in previous modules.
Objectives: To gain insight into different preference valuation techniques and (pharmaco)economic evaluation methods. This module will address valuation of health states and pharmacoeconomic evaluation methods. Economic consideration play an important role in decision-making on medicines, e.g. for reimbursement purposes.
This course welcomes strong personalities, future leaders, talented and creative thinkers who are interested in discussing relevant patterns for new strategies and approaches. The course offers the start of an exploration of realistic concepts of leadership towards a strengthened knowledge economy and an involved society with a focus on people's expectations (planet, people and profit).
The aim of the course is to introduce participants to and deepen their knowledge of the important theoretical background needed to do business in Europe.
This course is a financial management game especially designed for those (aspirant) professionals who are interested in financial decision-making processes. Participants learn how to make sound policy decisions in the field of finance. Focus will be on the interdependency of investment decisions with regard to production, marketing and finance. Support and test financial policymaking by setting up liquidity budgets, operating budgets, capacity planning and cost analyses.
The Pembroke-Kings Programme (PKP) offers an exceptional opportunity for outstanding undergraduates to experience Cambridge student life over eight weeks, the length of a regular University term. Living in Pembroke or Kings Colleges, students choose three courses from the forty-five on offer, including courses in the arts, social sciences, business and management, humanities and sciences.
The course will focus on the construction of investment portfolios. For people who work in the financial world understanding the concepts of risk en return is very important. Pension funds, investment funds and individual investors need to consider such components in order to manage their risks properly.
Step from the world of books into what theories imply for real-life; budgeting, deadlines, working with multidisciplinary teams, personal strengths and weaknesses; all challenges a project manager needs to deal with.
A three-week dive into European business life. Deal with intercultural differences in a business setting, and work on case studies in the Netherlands and Italy. The course European Business Skills offers theoretical background, but especially a practical approach to the skills needed in a European business setting.
The main theme during the course will be how small and medium sized firms (SMEs) can create competitive advantage with the limited marketing resources they possess.